The very long and complex history of homosexual relations within Japanese Buddhist institutions has only now come to light in the English-speaking world with the recent translation of a few key documents and a number of commentaries on them these are referenced throughout the pages below.
We will therefore calculate the principal components separately for each population group and then extrapolate them to the other groups. The degree to which the components thus separately calculated de facto coincide with each other in their extrapolations indicates that a similarity of structures does exist.
In other words, these two synthesis variables are almost indistinguishable. No matter if we limit ourselves or not to a particular age group to calculate them, the result will be exactly the same. Each time, the correlations between the first extrapolated factorial axes are above 0.
See explanations in the text. Even though the invariance of the first two components is unquestionable, it is less clear for the third one, and even less for the following ones that will not be presented here.
The fact that they were recognised as valid in the past is enough to have them admitted as valid in the present. Respecting tradition means believing in the sacred nature of the customs handed over through generations and that now organise social life.
It is believing in the legitimacy of the ones who called for ruling society in keeping with these customs. Yet, most of the scales that are strongly correlated to the first structuring factor can apparently be interpreted according to some problematics of respect of the past and the traditions.
The two of them referring to politics will not be retained in the following analysis for the others are the ones that constitute the basis of our diagnosis. Valuing authority can be understood as the manifestation of an attachment to the stability of social environments and as a belief in the legitimacy of the persons parents for instance who hand these values down.
Through that scale, the favoured elements are stability and hierarchy of family roles: In the socialisation process, the transmission of values from the past is deeply linked to this stability of family roles: Religion obviously plays a central part in the transmission of the sacred things of the past.
It constitutes a perfect support for the transmission of accepted beliefs without being appraised by any other criterion but the fact of having been validated by the past.
It is thus not surprising to find that religiosity scale correlated to that first axis. First of all, it renders rather straightforwardly the wish that moral rules ruling daily life should keep on being respected today the way they were once respected.
A rule should not be appreciated in terms of its contents: Obviously, this idea of autonomy is deeply antinomic with the respect of tradition. The scales are also largely coherent with each other under a technical view only for their summation enables to construct high-quality synthetic scales of which the Cronbach coefficients show the strength.
In order to facilitate further interpretations, we will hereafter use the synthetic scale obtained when putting the religiosity scale aside and summing up the five other elementary scales examined previously. Among ancient values, we will only keep the ones that are legitimate in terms of ancientness.
The problem is obviously to know how well the attachment to a value, however ancient, conveys a feeling of legitimacy from the past and of respect for authority. Generally, there is little information in the surveys on the feelings these persons associate with the opinions they declare.
It is in fact a widespread problem in opinion polls. In these surveys, there is also no research on the attitudes the persons may have towards the past, in terms of emotion or ideals.
Therefore, we cannot but select the questions on domains that we consider are associated with feelings of great respect for the past, which raises several problems. First a researcher may have difficulties of interpretation and make mistakes.
For instance, what to think of the so-called identity attachments to religions, which are attachments based on a conscious and reasoned solidarity among people belonging to a same group and which are said to be developing? Is the past legitimatised in an attachment of this kind?
Secondly and mostly, there are mostly the possible biases related to the sources themselves. Thus, the Values surveys include few questions regarding economic, political or cultural domains.A Manifesto Against the Enemies of Modernity.
by James A. Lindsay and Helen Pluckrose; Posted on August 22, February 2, ; This document is very long and detailed so a brief bulleted summary is provided below for those who don’t have the hour it takes for a careful read.
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1 Sexuality, African Religio-Cultural Traditions and Modernity: Expanding the Lens Ifi Amadiume In this exploratory essay, Ifi Amadiume, takes a critical look at the normative.
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