Those who joined the armed pilgrimage wore a cross as a symbol of the Church. The Crusades set the stage for several religious knightly military orders, including the Knights Templarthe Teutonic Knights, and the Hospitallers. These groups defended the Holy Land and protected pilgrims traveling to and from the region.
Historical context[ edit ] The causes of the Crusades in general, and particularly of the First Crusade, is widely debated among historians.
While the relative weight or importance of the various factors may be the subject of ongoing disputes, it is clear that the First Crusade came about from a combination of factors in both Europe and the Near East.
Its origin is linked both with the political situation in Catholic Christendom, including the political and social situation in 11th-century Europe, the rise of a reform movement within the papacy as well as the military and religious confrontation of Christianity and Islam in the East.
PisaGenoaand the Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean Basinexemplified by the Mahdia campaign of and battles at Majorca and Sardinia. In the early summer ofthe first large unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople.
This wave was reported to be undisciplined and ill-equipped as an army. The second wave was also not under the command of the Emperor and was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders.
Together, this group and the first wave numbered an estimated 60, It was intermittently ideological, as evidenced by the Codex Vigilanus compiled in However, the breakdown of the Carolingian Empire gave rise to an entire class of warriors who now had little to do but fight among themselves.
At the same time, the reform-minded papacy came into conflict with the Holy Roman Emperorsresulting in the Investiture Controversy. It became acceptable for the Pope to utilize knights in the name of Christendomnot only against political enemies of the Papacy, but also against Al-Andalusor, theoretically, against the Seljuq dynasty in the east.
Historians have argued that the desire to impose Roman church authority in the east may have been one of the goals of the crusade,  although Urban II, who launched the First Crusade, never refers to such a goal in his letters on crusading.
The Seljuq Turks had taken over almost all of Anatolia after the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Manzikert in ; however, their conquests were piecemeal and led by semi-independent warlords, rather than by the sultan. This call was largely ignored and even opposed.
Byzantine—Seljuq wars The Byzantine empire had lost control over most of Anatolia in the decade following the disastrous Battle of Manzikert. The Seljuqs, who were orthodox Sunni Muslims, had formerly ruled the Great Seljuq Empirebut by the time of the First Crusade it had divided into several smaller states after the death of Malik-Shah I in Warfare between the Fatimids and Seljuqs caused great disruption for the local Christians and for western pilgrims.
Urban responded favourably, perhaps hoping to heal the Great Schism of forty years earlier, and to reunite the Church under papal primacy by helping the Eastern churches in their time of need. There were signs of considerable co-operation between Rome and Constantinople in the years immediately before the crusade.
His travels there culminated in the Council of Clermont in November, where he gave an impassioned sermon to a large audience of French nobles and clergy.
|The proclaimed purpose of the Crusades, which were often requested and encouraged by papal policy, was to recover the city of Jerusalem as well as other eastern locations of religious pilgrimage all located in an area referred to as the Holy Land by Christians from the control of the Muslims.|
|How to Write a Summary of an Article? The Pope stressed the religious and economic importance of the Eastern churches and Jerusalem that had both been taken over by Muslim Turks.|
There are five versions of the speech recorded by people who may have been at the council Baldric of DolGuibert of NogentRobert the Monkand Fulcher of Chartres or who went on crusade Fulcher and the anonymous author of the Gesta Francorumas well as other versions found in later historians such as William of Malmesbury and William of Tyre.
All of these versions were written after Jerusalem had been captured. Thus it is difficult to know what was actually said and what was recreated in the aftermath of the successful crusade.
The only contemporary records are a few letters written by Urban in The army led by Walter fought with the Hungarians over food at Belgradebut otherwise arrived in Constantinople unharmed.
At Nish the Byzantine governor tried to supply them, but Peter had little control over his followers and Byzantine troops were needed to quell their attacks.
Peter arrived at Constantinople in August, where his army joined with the one led by Walter, which had already arrived, as well as separate bands of crusaders from France, Germany, and Italy.
Another army of Bohemians and Saxons did not make it past Hungary before splitting up. The greater experience of the Turks was overwhelming; and most of this group of the crusaders were massacred because of it. Some Italian and German crusaders were defeated and killed at Xerigordon at the end of August.
The Turkish archers destroyed the crusader army, and Walter was among the dead. Peter, who was absent in Constantinople at the time, later joined the main crusader army, along with the few survivors of Civetot.
Other unofficial crusaders from Swabia, led by Hartmann of Dillingen, along with French, English, Lotharingian and Flemish volunteers, led by Drogo of Nesle and William the Carpenteras well as many locals, joined Emicho in the destruction of the Jewish community of Mainz at the end of May.
His followers dispersed; some eventually joined the main armies, although Emicho himself went home. A decade before, the Bishop of Speyer had taken the step of providing the Jews of that city with a walled ghetto to protect them from Christian violence and given their chief Rabbis the control of judicial matters in the quarter.
Nevertheless, some also took money in return for their protection.
The attacks may have originated in the belief that Jews and Muslims were equally enemies of Christ, and enemies were to be fought or converted to Christianity.Crusades: First Crusade and New Paragraph The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Western Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire.
the first Crusade. What Caused the Crusades? (Other Motivations) Crusades? •Stimulated TRADE -new products introduced -cities and towns grew in importance -port cities in Italy became important trading centers (Venice) What were the causes and effects of the Crusades?
The Crusades The Crusades were military excursions made by Western European Christians during the late eleventh century through the late thirteenth century. The background: 11th century Many different factors contribute to one of the strangest threads in western medieval history. The story of the crusades is an exceptional blend of idealism and barbarity, even by the standards of other holy wars. Crusades: First Crusade and New Paragraph Essay The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Western Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire.
This caused the first four Crusades to have the most impact, excluding the Children’s Crusade, which was the beginning of the end of the Christian empire.
Which in the end, although the Christian empire put up a good fight for almost years; they fell with their last empires, Jerusalem and Acre.
The background: 11th century Many different factors contribute to one of the strangest threads in western medieval history. The story of the crusades is an exceptional blend of idealism and barbarity, even by the standards of other holy wars. Crusades: First Crusade and New Paragraph Essay The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Western Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire.
Pope Urban II’s decision to launch the First Crusades altered Medieval Europe politically, socially, and economically.
The Pope stressed the religious and economic importance of the Eastern churches and Jerusalem that had both been taken over by Muslim Turks.