Such segregation was one of the main forces that drove the gender wage gap in the Soviet Russia. Since Marxist ideology considers the productive sphere manufacturing superior to the unproductive one services, office jobsthe blue-collar wages always tended to be higher than the white-collar wages. Nevertheless, occupational segregation was not the only contributor the wage gap during the soviet times, as labor market discrimination, even though forbidden by law, was well set afoot and contributed in big measure to wage differentials. Furthermore, since both creativity and authority were identified with men, women who tried to pursue managerial or professional careers encountered subtle but effective resistance to their promotion".
By Graham Peebles A suffocating patriarchal shadow hangs over the lives of women throughout India. From all sections, castes and classes of society, women are victim of its repressive, controlling effects.
The name may have been banned but pervasive negative attitudes of mind remain, as do the extreme levels of abuse and servitude experienced by Dalit women. They experience multiple levels of discrimination and exploitation, much of which is barbaric, degrading, appallingly violent and totally inhumane.
Caste refers to a traditional Hindu model of social stratification, which defines people by descent and occupation. It is defined as a system of graded inequality in which castes are arranged according to an ascending scale of reverence, and a descending scale of contempt… i.
Practices like Devadasiwhereby girls as young as 12 years of age are dedicated to the Hindu goddess Yellamma and sold into prostitution; honour killings; sexual abuse, including rape; appalling working conditions; and limited access to basic services such as water, sanitation and employment are commonplace.
Stripping, naked parading, caste abuses, pulling out nails and hair, sexual slavery and bondage are a few forms peculiar to Dalit women. Exploitation and patriarchal power The power play of patriarchy saturates every area of Indian society and gives rise to a variety of discriminatory practices, such as female infanticide, discrimination against girls and dowry-related deaths.
It is a major cause of exploitation and abuse of women, with a great deal of sexual violence being perpetrated by men in positions of power. These range from higher caste men violating lower caste women, specifically Dalits; policemen mistreating women from poor households; and military men abusing Dalit and Adivasi women in insurgency states such as Kashmir, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Manipur.
Security personnel are protected by the widely criticized Armed Forces Special Powers Act, which grants impunity to police and members of the military carrying out criminal acts of rape and indeed murder; it was promulgated by the British in as an emergency measure, to suppress the Quit India Movement.
It is an unjust law, which needs abolishing. In December the heinous gang rape and mutilation of a year-old paramedical student in New Delhi, who subsequently died from her injuries, garnered worldwide media attention, throwing a momentary spotlight on the dangers, oppression and appalling treatment women in India face every day.
Rape is endemic in the country. With most cases of rape going unreported and many being dismissed by police, the true figure could be 10 times this. The women most at risk of abuse are Dalits: Add to this the important Scheduled Castes and Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act ofand a well-armed legislative army is formed.
It is a familiar Indian story: Violence, exploitation and exclusion are used to keep Dalit women in a position of subordination and to maintain the patriarchal grip on power throughout Indian society.
The cities are dangerous places for women, but it is in the countryside, where most people live 70 per cent that the greatest levels of abuse occur.
Many living in rural areas live in extreme poverty million people in India live on less than 2. It is a world apart from democratic Delhi, or Westernized Mumbai: No surprise, then, that after two decades of economic growth, India finds itself languishing th of countries in the gender equality adjusted United Nations Human Development index … Repressive ideas of gender inequality Indian society is segregated in multiple ways: Entrenched patriarchy and gender divisions, which value boys over girls and keep men and women and boys and girls apart, combine with child marriage to contribute to the creation of a society in which sexual abuse and exploitation of women, particularly Dalit women, is an acceptable part of everyday life.
Rape, sexual violence, molestation and harassment are rife, but, with the exception perhaps of the Bollywood Mumbai set, sex is a taboo subject.The French Embassy in Russia announced earlier on Monday it had been notified by Russian authorities that Business France was not allowed to carry out its activities in the country anymore.
All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. On a regional level, Russia has ratified the European Convention on Human Rights and its Protocols 1, 4, and 7 (May 5, ). The latest news on Donald Trump, Congress, campaigns, elections, policy and everything politics from HuffPost. RUSSIA NEITHER JOBS NOR JUSTICE State Discrimination Against Women in Russia SUMMARY Economic and political changes in Russia have left many Russians staggering under the burdens of .
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